Thursday, December 21, 2017

Chesapeake Bay Foundation Contributes Annual and Investigative Reports to BHL

The Chesapeake Bay Foundation has spent the past fifty years working on a complex ecological problem. The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in Maryland, Delaware, D.C. and Virginia. While about half of its water comes from the Atlantic Ocean, the rest flows to the bay from 64,000 square miles of watershed - spanning 6 states and home to over 18 million people. Pollution from sewage, agriculture, and industry (as well as other impacts of human development) have degraded the bay’s water quality, damaging biodiversity as well as human health, economics, and recreation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) is a private sector group using many approaches to tackle this regional issue.

Thanks to CBF’s participation in the Expanding Access to Biodiversity Literature project, Annual Reports and Investigative Reports from CBF are now available on BHL. These publications document CBF’s initiatives in environmental science, restoration, education, advocacy and litigation.

CBF has contributed its Annual Reports from 2008-2014 which track the organization’s accomplishments and goals. The Investigative Reports contributed to BHL are:

Atlantic Blue Crab on the cover of the 2011 Chesapeake Bay Foundation Annual Report. Contributed to BHL by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation as part of the Expanding Access to Biodiversity Literature project.

About the Chesapeake Bay Foundation

CBF has been active in coastal conservation since 1967. With offices in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania and D.C., as well as fifteen field centers, it’s the largest independent conservation organization dedicated to promoting the health of the Chesapeake Bay.

Infographic by Chesapeake Bay Foundation, web accessed 12/1/2017:

Over the decades, CBF has been instrumental in organizing and sustaining inter-state conservation work. In the 1970s, CBF called for and then provided staff support to a seven-year Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chesapeake Bay Study which analyzed the state of the bay and identified contributing problems. In the 1980s, based on the study’s results, CBF participated in negotiations for the first Chesapeake Bay Agreement, a cooperative inter-state commitment to reduce pollution. Today’s goals for bay cleanup are outlined in the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint, an interstate agreement that includes fairly-distributed, measurable goals as well as EPA-imposed consequences for failure to comply. CBF scientists evaluate the long-term progress of the Bay’s health by measuring indicators in three key areas: pollution, habitat, and fisheries.

CBF’s education programs bring youth into the field for hands-on learning. Kids explore wetlands by boat and learn about watershed ecology and local fishing communities. Photo courtesy of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation/

One of CBF’s many current projects has communities 'recycling' oyster shells. Restaurants and citizens bring their empty shells to drop-off points, where they are cleaned and then placed in tanks of swimming oyster larvae. The larvae anchor onto the shells and grow into young 'spat' oysters. Oyster gardeners place these shells in rivers and the Bay to help rebuild oyster reefs. This helps to restore the oyster population and improve water quality - one of these filter feeders can filter up to 50 gallons of water in a day.

Thanks to the Chesapeake Bay Foundation for sharing their extensive work with us on the Biodiversity Heritage Library!

By Elizabeth Meyer 
Library Project Assistant 
Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University


Chesapeake Bay Foundation (n.d.) Retrieved from

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Magnificent Crustacea: Leach and Sowerby's Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae

William Elford Leach. Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae. Title page. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00626.

Without a doubt, Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae (1815-1875) is one of the most beautiful publications dedicated to Crustacea. This work, a very special proofprint copy of which has recently been digitized and made available on BHL by the Naturalis Library, was the work of two well-known names in British natural history: the young zoologist William Elford Leach (1791-1836) and the experienced naturalist and engraver James Sowerby (1757-1822). The background and personal history of both gentlemen had a great influence on the coming about of the publication.

Illustration by James Sowerby for Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae, by William Elford Leach. Tab. XXXVI. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00732.

William Elford Leach 

William Elford Leach was one of the great British zoologists of the beginning of the nineteenth century. He started his career as assistant librarian at the British Museum and was responsible for the zoological collections. He was given the task of reorganizing the collections of Hans Sloane, which formed the basis of the museum.

Of the old carcinological collection, not much was left by the nineteenth century. Because of its deplorable condition, Leach's predecessors were forced to destroy much of the collection materials, and as a result, of the hundreds of crustaceans left by Sloane in the eighteenth century, only one specimen has survived to this day. The core of the current carcinological collections of the British Museum is formed by specimens collected under Leach’s supervision. Not only did material from all over the world come in through his scientific contacts, he also donated his personal collection to the museum.

Leach’s merits go beyond collection building alone. He was a gifted taxonomist with a large scientific network who was therefore aware of the developments in systematics on the European continent. He shared this knowledge with his colleagues in Great Britain, organized the collections on a more scientific basis, and wrote a series of articles about it.

The scientific names that Leach introduced were sometimes unusual and not appreciated by all. He named for instance countless genera after a certain Caroline. Leach used her (latenized) name playfully as an anagram to create genus names like Ricenela and Cirolana. Nevertheless, his work ethic was highly praised and his scientific productivity was second to none.

Sadly, Leach’s career lasted only a decade. In 1821, he suffered a nervous breakdown from which he would never recover. A year later he departed from the museum. As a thank you for the enormous collections he had left behind, he received a pension from the British Museum. He did not fare much better after that. He traveled to France and Italy and died of cholera in 1836.

James Sowerby 

Leach was a scientific innovator and brought the zoology in Great Britain to a higher level. Part of his success lay in his collaboration with a gifted artist. For the illustrations in Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae, he relied on the detailed and colorful imagination of James Sowerby.

Portrait of James Sowerby, by Thomas Heaphy. 1816. Wikimedia Commons.

Sowerby was well known because of his extensive contributions to botanical masterpieces such as A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland.

Unlike most of his contemporaries, he was an artist who actively engaged in scientific work. He maintained correspondence with naturalists and urged them to send material that he could use for detailed studies. The colors that Sowerby used in his work are vivid and meant to appeal to a large audience. In 1809, he published a theory in which he stated that the basic colors red, yellow and blue offer all possibilities for botanical, zoological and geological imagination because these colors were given by nature.

Gold-plated Crabs and The Special Collection of Bibliotheca Carcinologica 

The Bibliotheca Carcinologica, a unique collection in the Naturalis Library of approximately 8,000 publications and a large reprint collection, holds two special copies of Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae. This collection was amassed by a former curator, Lipke Bijdeley Holthuis (1921-2008), who for more than half a century was the leading expert in his field of crustacean taxonomy. He was particularly interested in collecting books that had been handed down by his famous predecessors.

L.B. Holthuis presented with his book (co-authored by Pietsch) about Lamotius. Photo: T.W. Pietsch, 2007, retouched by B. Kroonenberg.

The Bibliotheca Carcinologica’s first copy of Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae was specially bound for the British collector Henry Arthus Johnstone. It features a band of green morocco decorated with gilded crabs and Johnstone’s coat of arms.

Private binding from the library of Henry Arthur Johnstone for William Elford Leach's Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00626.

Private binding from the library of Henry Arthur Johnstone for William Elford Leach's Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00626.

Johnstone's library contained much natural history and was sold in its entirety to a London bookseller in 1921. Subsequently, the books have spread all over the world.

A beautiful binding and a good provenance are of course desirable, but for Holthuis it was of greater importance that a copy was complete, and that in addition all information that provides insight into the publication’s history was preserved. At the back of Johnstone's copy of Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae are the covers of the original seventeen plus the two later issues, revealing exact publication dates and an alternate original title, as well as providing insight into the intention of William Elford Leach with regards to the publication.

On the cover of the first issue, Leach wrote that he wanted to publish twelve or fourteen episodes. He asked British naturalists to help make the publication as complete as possible and encouraged them to accurately analyze all the 'rubbish' that dredgers collected from the seabed. Apparently, his call was successful, because on the cover of the thirteenth issue, Leach indicates that the discovery of new species made it impossible to complete the work in fourteen episodes. The new goal was to complete it within eighteen or nineteen episodes.

Illustration by James Sowerby for Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae, by William Elford Leach. Tab. XXIA. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00732.

After the seventeenth episode that appeared on March 1, 1820, the publication ceased. Leach was unable to continue his work after his breakdown. Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae was finally completed by George Brettinham Sowerby (1812-1884) over half a century later after the publisher Bernard Quaritch had bought up the stock remnants. Quaritch was sensitive to the wish of James Sowerby's descendant to finish the publication according to the original plan. In one additional episode published in 1875 as nos. XVIII and XIX, six more plates plus a beautiful plate of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus), which had previously been unfinished, were published.

European lobster (Homarus gammarus). G.B. Sowerby, Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae. Tab. XXXV. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00732.

Printing Proofs 

More than thirty years after Holthuis had acquired the fine copy from the library of Henry Arthur Johnstone, he bought a very expensive complete set of nineteen separate episodes of Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae. On the surface, it is not immediately clear why he would do this: after all, the copy he already had in his possession was complete, with all of the plates and the original covers of the episodes. Further analysis shows that this second copy purchased by Holthuis represents the proofs that William Elford Leach used to provide direction for the publication. On plate XXXIX, for example, he writes: 'Can the rostrum be the added to this plate?'

Proof print. Illustration by James Sowerby for Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae, by William Elford Leach. Tab. XXXIX. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00732.

The rostrum is a pointed, forward-looking deformity of the armor of a crustacean, which sometimes provides usable distinctive indication for taxonomic classification. No wonder Leach asked Sowerby if he could show that in detail. On the plate in Johnstone's copy of the title, the rostrum of Spirontocaris spinus is indeed added.

William Elford Leach, Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae. Tab. XXXIX. Ernst Mayr Library, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.

Other instructions from Leach have also been neatly followed up. The proofs have no direct meaning for the nomenclature; after all, these are unpublished trials with no published names. However, they do provide a good insight into the way Leach and Sowerby worked together and which colors they had in mind.

This unique proofprint copy has recently been digitized for BHL by the Naturalis Library. You can explore it in BHL for free.

Illustration by James Sowerby for Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittaniae, by William Elford Leach. Tab. XXX. Naturalis, RBR Holt 00732.

Naturalis Library 

The library holds a large collections of scientific, taxonomic literature on zoology, geology, botany and palaeontology. It caters to everyone interested in researching biodiversity, geodiversity and evolution. The library is almost 200 years old and contains around 200,000 books, journals, drawings, prints, icones and many other archived materials.

This blog is largely based on the chapter: Alex Alsemgeest, 'Malacostraca Podophthalmata Brittanniae: de drukproeven van het mooiste kreeftenboek. In: A. Alsemgeest en C. Fransen (eds.), In krabbengang door kreeftenboeken: de Bibliotheca Carcinologica L.B. Holthuis (Leiden: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2016), p. 123-127.

By Godard Tweehuysen 
Naturalis Library

Friday, December 8, 2017

From Dayton to Cambridge and Back Again: the field notes of August F. Foerste

Field notes are well known to be essential, primary material that provide details about collections and expeditions that aren’t found in published material or specimen labels. Field notes can also contain diary entries, poems, and sketches which give insight into the lives of the researchers themselves. And now, we can add the candy preferences of August F. Foerste to those insights.

In his Specimen notebook, Ohio, 1887-1888, with no explanation, we find a list of several different candy recipes, including chocolate creams, lemon drops, and Neapolitan creams. Brings up quite a few questions. Who gave him the recipes? Was this the only paper he had available to write them down? Did he try to make them? Why is there a sugar syrup recipe at the end of the chocolate cream recipe with no explanation as to what to do with it? (This last one, admittedly, is more a personal inquiry of mine.)

Specimen notebook, Ohio, 1887-1888.

What we can determine is that they were written down in 1888 when Foerste was completing his master’s degree at Harvard University. In fact, on the facing page, pictured above, we see a note about Harvard’s collections, in particular “microscopic studies of bryozoan, sections of corals, dissected specimens of crinoids, [and] sections of brachiopoda shells.” So while he may have been briefly distracted by confection, he was still focused on his studies. In that same notebook, Foerste includes several illustrations of specimens.

Specimen notebook, Ohio, 1887-1888.

Foerste was a native of Dayton, Ohio. Like many naturalists, his early interests in science came about from wandering around town and taking note of the fossils, geological formations and stratigraphy of the local area. He completed his bachelor's degree at Denison University before continuing his studies in Cambridge, Mass. While at Harvard, Foesrte also served as part-time assistant with the United States Geological Survey. As part of the survey, he studied the stratigraphy and petrography of New England.
Illustration by Foerste while in Vermont for the U.S. Geological Survey. Foerste was also studying at Harvard at the time.
Field notes, New England, undated.

After graduating with his Ph.D, Foesrte would return to his hometown, spending most of his career as a teacher at Steele High School. During the summer breaks, he would go out into the field for the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of the BHL Field Notes Project, Smithsonian Institution Archives has digitized many of these notes. In 1932, he was appointed as Associate in Paleontology for the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History) until his death in 1936.

We are excited to share Foerste's field notes as part of the BHL Field Notes Project. You can view these and other notebooks by Foerste in BHL. And if anyone gives those confection recipes a try, be sure to share with us!

Written by 
Adriana Marroquin 
Project Manager, BHL Field Notes Project and Smithsonian Field Book Project 

The BHL Field Notes Project is funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR). 

Finding Aid for "Record Unit 7242, Foerste, Aug. F,(Aug. Frederic),1862-1936, Aug. F. (Aug. Frederic) Foerste Papers, 1887-1933 and undated

"August F. Foerste." Centreville-Washington History.  

For a transcribed copy of the recipes, check out the Smithsonian Field Book Project's 2012 Holiday Card, designed by Lesley Parilla.

Thursday, November 30, 2017

The Art of Herpetology: Schlegel's Reptiles and Amphibians

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

German ornithologist and herpetologist Hermann Schlegel hoped that the publication of good illustrations would stimulate public interest in reptiles and amphibians. Thus, he produced Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibian (1837-44).

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Schlegel, who eventually became director of the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), is best-known for his research on birds, but his initial interest was in herpetology. Inspired by other beautifully-illustrated natural history books that had aroused public interest in their subjects, Schlegel compiled this work comprised of an atlas of 50 color plates and a short volume of text. Although the title mentions only amphibians, it describes and illustrates many reptile species as well.

It is unclear why the book's title does not also mention reptiles. It has been suggested that the work's original scope may have intended to cover only amphibians, and that the title was not adjusted after the scope broadened. This, however, is merely conjecture.

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Unfortunately, the names of the artists who produced the drawings upon which these plates are based are unknown. Schlegel mentioned only that he received the illustrations from painters working in India.

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

The text volume of this work was digitized by Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. The atlas was digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Schlegel, H. (Hermann). Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien. 1837-1844. Atlas digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Stiassny, Melanie L.J. (2014). Schlegel's Guide to Amphibians. Natural Histories Opulent Oceans: Extraordinary Rare Book Selections from the American Museum of Natural History Library. New York: Sterling Publishing. 

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Flore d'Amérique: Illustrating America’s Tropical Flora

Denisse, Etienne. Flore d'Amérique. 1843-46. Digitized by the LuEsther T. Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden.

In the 1840s, Europe was enraptured by the beauty of America’s tropical flora. With the production of the lavishly-illustrated Flore d'Amérique (1843-46), Etienne Denisse brought the exotic flowers, fruits, trees, vines, and nuts growing in the Caribbean Islands to captivated readers across the Atlantic.

As a lithographer for the French royal court, Etienne Denisse spent his early career at the botanical garden of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, but employment by the government took Denisse’s work to the New World. He spent many years in the French West Indies, illustrating and collecting plants from the region and sending specimens back to France [4] [2].

Denisse, Etienne. Denisse, Etienne. Flore d'Amérique. 1843-46. Digitized by the LuEsther T. Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden.

Denisse’s work in America culminated in the production of the magnificent Flore d'Amérique, comprised of a total of 201 plates. This title is very rare, and copies are often incomplete. However, thanks to the LuEsther T. Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden, anyone in the world can freely access Denisse’s masterpiece through the Biodiversity Heritage Library

Flore d'Amérique’s stunning hand-colored lithographic plates were based on drawings “from nature” by Denisse. The work was issued in fascicles of six plates between 1843-1846 [2]. Imprints on the individual plates credit both the Parisian firm Gihaut Frères (plates 1-49,64-72) and Denisse (plates 50-63, 73-200) as publishers. 

Denisse, Etienne. Denisse, Etienne. Flore d'Amérique. 1843-46. Digitized by the LuEsther T. Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden.

Originally founded by Antoine François Gihaut as a firm of printsellers, Gihaut Frères expanded into publishing after Gihaut’s sons, Jean François and Michel Ange, took charge of the operation in 1822. In 1829, the firm received a brevet to serve as lithographic printers, but after 1839, this work was contracted out to other lithographic printing houses [1]. A variety of lithographic printers are credited via imprints throughout the plates within Flore d'Amérique, including d'Aubert &, Laujol, Kaeppelin &, Vayron, and Becquet. 

In 2007, The New York Botanical Garden, LuEsther T. Mertz Library opened an exhibition celebrating the Caribbean’s history, culture, and biodiversity. Entitled Paradise in Print, the exhibition showcased the rich flora of the region through the display of printed folio editions, rare books, and original watercolors from the Library’s collection [3]. 

Denisse, Etienne. Denisse, Etienne. Flore d'Amérique. 1843-46. Digitized by the LuEsther T. Mertz Library at The New York Botanical Garden.

Fittingly, Denisse’s Flore d'Amérique was among the treasures displayed as part of the exhibition. Through the printed page, Denisse and his fellow European explorers introduced the wonders of the New World to a broader audience across the Atlantic. Today, these illustrated publications are both works of art and valuable historical records that help provide insight into the ways in which European contact with America impacted the region’s biodiversity and culture. 

View all of the illustrations from Flore d'Amérique in the BHL Flickr

By Grace Costantino
Outreach and Communication Manager
Biodiversity Heritage Library


[1] British Museum. 2017. “Gihaut Frères (Biographical details).” Research. Accessed September 14, 2017.
[2] Christie’s Auction House. 2014. “Denisse, Etienne.” Sale 3400, December 4. Accessed September 14, 2017. 
[3] Dorfman, Jane, Marie Long and Stephen Sinon. 2007. Paradise in Print: Exhibition Catalog. Bronx: The New York Botanical Garden. 
[4] Mullarkey, Maureen. 2007. “Botanical Eden.” The New York Sun, August 2.

Monday, November 20, 2017

Series Two: BHL NDSR Webinars

In November, four of our BHL NDSR residents delivered webinars reporting on the results of their research and recommendations on how we might best improve the features and functionality of BHL to incorporate new technologies and evolving best practices for digital libraries and the larger biodiversity community.

You can view recordings of these past webinars:

BHL NDSR Webinar Schedule: Series Two
Please mark your calendars and join us for the final two webinars in our BHL NDSR series:

November 27, 2017 at 2:00pm ET
Marissa Kings, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Biodiversity Heritage Library: Best Practices for Digital Libraries
Seminar Room: iDigBio Conference Room ( 500 )

December 5, 2017 at 2:00pm ET
Ariadne Rehbein, Missouri Botanical Garden
Biodiversity Heritage Library: Enabling Image Discovery
Seminar Room: iDigBio Conference Room ( 500 )

New to Adobe Connect? We recommend following the link to the webinar about 15-20 minutes before the start time to install any add-ins as needed and to run the Audio Wizard. Please note that sometimes after running the Audio Wizard, you may still need to click on the picture of the microphone to connect the microphone. Should you have any questions, we’ll also be monitoring the chat throughout. Hope you can join us!

Friday, November 17, 2017

TDWG 2017 Annual Conference: Data Integration in a Big Data Universe: Associating Occurrences with Genes, Phenotypes, and Environments

The Biodiversity Heritage Library is an institutional member of TDWG. TDWG was formed to:
establish international collaboration among biological database projects. TDWG promoted the wider and more effective dissemination of information about the World's heritage of biological organisms for the benefit of the world at large. Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) now focuses on the development of standards for the exchange of biological/biodiversity data.

The TDWG 2017 Annual Conference, the theme of which was "Data Integration in a Big Data Universe: Associating Occurrences with Genes, Phenotypes, and Environments" (see the full program here),  provides the opportunity for bioinformatics professionals to meet and exchange a wide variety of ideas. Held in Ottawa, Ontario, the conference was hosted by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Museum of Nature (a BHL Affiliate).

This year, The Biodiversity Heritage Library organized a symposium, "500 Years of Big Data from the Biodiversity Heritage Library", organized by BHL Program Director Martin R. Kalfatovic and BHL Program Manager Carolyn A. Sheffield. In addition to the BHL symposium, BHL web developer Mike Lichtenberg participated in the symposium "Using Big Data Techniques to Cross Dataset Boundaries - Integration and Analysis of Multiple Datasets", organized by Kalfatovic, Matthew Collins, and Robert Guralnick.

See details about the symposiums below:

BHL Symposium (abstracts found in the links below)

From left: Lewis, Orrell, Mozzherin, Mika, Sheffield

Symposium: Using Big Data Techniques to Cross Dataset Boundaries - Integration and Analysis of Multiple Datasets


TDWG also offered the opportunity for excursions. The Canadian Museum of Nature (CMN) provided an amazing tour of their collections facilities located just outside the city. The CMN library is also located at this facility and it was great to meet with the library staff and see their collections.

By Martin R. Kalfatovic
Program Director
Biodiversity Heritage Library

Thursday, November 16, 2017

John Forbes Royle: Materia Medica and Economic Botany

As part of the Expanding Access to Biodiversity Literature project, an interesting title was added to BHL from Yale University’s Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library and the online Medical Heritage Library: An essay on the antiquity of Hindoo medicine, including an introductory lecture to the course of materia medica and therapeutics, delivered at King's College, by physician-botanist John Forbes Royle.

Title page of An essay on the antiquity of Hindoo medicine, including an introductory lecture to the course of materia medica and therapeutics, delivered at King's College, by Royle, J. Forbes (John Forbes), 1799-1858. London, Allen, 1837. Digitized by Yale University via the Medical Heritage Library.

This work from 1837 documents the materia medica (pharmacology) of India, and explores the historical exchange of medicinal knowledge between cultural groups of India, Arabia, Persia, Greece and China. Including details in botany, ecology, minerology and astronomy, it’s an intriguing interdisciplinary resource that can also be read for insights on its Western author and this period in time.

John Forbes Royle (1798-1858) traded his plan to join the British army for an unexpected interest in natural history. He was born at Kanpur, India, and would return to India after attending Edinburgh High School and the East India Company's military academy at Addiscombe. Inspired by the mentorship of physician Anthony Todd Thomson, Royle chose to pursue medicine as a means to further his study of botany. He became an assistant surgeon with the East India Company, and in the following years worked at several locations across northern India, where he studied medicines from bazaars, employed collectors to amass a collection of economic plants, and became superintendent of the garden at Saharanpur. He earned the titles of MD in 1833 and Professor of Materia Medica at King's College, London, in 1836.

An excerpt from Essay on the antiquity of Hindoo medicine demonstrates Royle’s interconnected thinking on medicine:

"There are, however, two branches of this extensive science [botany], respecting which I am desirous of making a few observations; one is the connexion between the Structure and Natural affinities of plants, and their Physical and Medical properties; and the other is the Geographical distribution, especially as connected with Climate. Both are important subjects, whether we consider them in a scientific or a practical point of view. The one teaches us the laws which influence the distribution of plants; points out the countries and climates which different families affect; and gives us principles for their cultivation, either as medicines, or as objects of agriculture: the other is no less valuable in affording us innumerable indications in every part of the world, for discovering the properties of new and unknown plants, whether as fitting them for food, for medicine, or for any of the arts of life[.]" [Royle, p. 3]
Cinchona, a South American genus. Its bark contains medicinal compounds including quinine, used to treat malaria. Royle recommended that Cinchona be grown in India. Image from BHL book: Icones plantarum medico-oeconomico-technologicarum cum earum fructus ususque descriptione. Wien:herausgegeben von Ignatz Albrecht und verlegt bey Phil. Jos. Schalbaecher, [1800]-1822. Digitized by Missouri Botanical Garden.

Cushing/Whitney Medical Library of Yale University 

The copy of Royle’s text in BHL belonged to Edward Salisbury, a Yale graduate and professor who encouraged scholarship on West and South Asia. Salisbury donated his “Oriental Library,” a collection of hundreds of rare and early printed books and manuscripts, to the college in 1870. Salisbury’s Oriental Library is foundational to what is now the third-largest collection of Islamic manuscripts in the United States. Last year, Yale celebrated Salisbury’s 175th anniversary as the first professor of Arabic and Sanskrit languages and literature in the Americas.

Essay on the antiquity of Hindoo medicine is now held at the Medical Historical Library of the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library. The library was named for Yale graduates Harvey Cushing, known as the father of neurosurgery, and John Hay Whitney, Herald Tribune editor and patron of the arts. In 1935, Cushing and two other physicians, John F. Fulton and Arnold C. Klebs, donated their personal collections of medical texts to the medical library, beginning its Medical Historical Library. Its collections include materials ranging from the 16th to 20th century, with works from Robert Boyle, Galen, William Harvey, Hippocrates, and Andreas Vesalius. Additionally, the Historical Library also holds prints, a collection of weights and measures, and presents rotating exhibits.

The Cushing/Whitney Library is also home to the Cushing Center, a room in the stacks transformed to display the medical specimens of Cushing’s Brain Tumor Registry. Cushing meticulously documented over 2,200 case studies as he pioneered the field of neurosurgery, and his registry includes specimens preserved from human surgeries and autopsies as well as notes, journal excerpts, photos and negatives.

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library Historical Library. Frank Poole, 2004.

Medical Heritage Library 

The Medical Heritage Library (MHL) is an online collection of materials that are free and openly accessible through the Internet Archive. Royle’s Essay on antiquity of Hindoo medicine came to BHL via the MHL.

Much like BHL, the MHL is a collaborative effort by medical libraries to promote access to resources (such as rare books, pamphlets, journals and films) that are useful across a spectrum of disciplines. The collection includes over 200,000 titles with fascinating variety - skimming the landing page, one can find herbals, medical dictionaries and papers, as well as video clips of 1960s tobacco commercials and Helen Keller’s autobiography.

The Medical Heritage Library was launched in 2010 by founders The Augustus C. Long Health Sciences Library at Columbia University and Columbia University Libraries/Information Services; The College of Physicians of Philadelphia; The Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University; The Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine at Harvard University; U.S. National Library of Medicine; and Wellcome Library in London, UK. (For more information about its content contributors, funding and support, please see MHL’s ‘About’ page.)

An essay on the antiquity of Hindoo Medicine is a welcome addition to BHL’s collection of works by John Forbes Royle, which include:

Thanks to Melissa Grafe, Ph.D, Head of the Medical Historical Library and John R. Bumstead Librarian for Medical History, who shared how this volume came to the Medical Historical Library.

By Elizabeth Meyer 
Library Project Assistant 
Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University


Thursday, November 9, 2017

BHL Facilitates Research on Alfred Russel Wallace's Legacy

Alfred Russel Wallace in 1869. Copyright George Beccaloni.

In 1854, Alfred Russel Wallace began an eight year collecting trip to Southeast Asia, through the region he called the Malay Archipelago (now Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and East Timor). It was during this expedition, in the midst of a fever in 1858, that Wallace conceived (independently of Darwin) of the theory of natural selection. Wallace expanded his idea into a detailed article which he sent to Charles Darwin for comment, unaware that Darwin himself had come to the same conclusion, though he had yet to publish the theory.

At the suggestion of Darwin's friends Charles Lyell and Joseph Hooker, Wallace's article, together with unpublished writings by Darwin on the subject of natural selection and evolution, were presented to the Linnean Society in 1858 and subsequently published in the Society's journal as "On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and On the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection," with Darwin and Wallace as co-authors.

While important for its link to the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, Wallace's Malay Archipelago expedition was also scientifically significant from a collecting standpoint.

Beccaloni (center) with the Patrons of his Wallace projects. Sir David Attenborough (left), Patron of the Wallace Correspondence Project, and Bill Bailey (right), Patron of the Wallace Memorial Fund. Photographed at London's Natural History Museum in 2012. Copyright Jan Beccaloni.

Dr. George Beccaloni, Director of the Alfred Russel Wallace Correspondence Project (an open access archive of Wallace's manuscripts), is working to catalog the animal species collected by him during his expedition. Not surprisingly, given the sheer number of specimens and the passage of time, this is a challenging endeavor.

"We know Wallace collected nearly 126,000 specimens: about 110,000 insects, 7,500 shells, 8,050 bird skins, and 410 mammals and reptiles, which ranged from Orangutans to Birds of Paradise, from land snails to cockroaches, from Birdwing butterflies to tiny parasitic wasps," shares Beccaloni. "I have estimated that about 5,000 of them were new to science, but apart from the 295 species he described himself, there is no list of all the others - or the many species he collected which already had scientific names."

Scientific literature is a valuable source of information on Wallace's specimens, but locating the relevant publications is itself a challenge.

"I am collaborating with colleagues in Southeast Asia and at London's Natural History Museum to produce a detailed list of the species Wallace collected," explains Beccaloni. "It is a difficult task because the information about them is scattered through the scientific literature of the last 163 years, in an estimated 400 or more publications. To find these requires considerable detective work."

Fortunately, the Biodiversity Heritage Library is making it considerably easier for Beccaloni to access the publications he needs for this research.

"BHL is an absolutely fantastic resource which is very important to my work," affirms Beccaloni. "Locating mentions of Wallace specimens is tricky, but at least most of the articles are now available in the BHL. If they weren't, it would mean going to a specialist library and searching through the physical publications, which would take a lot more effort and be logistically difficult."

Once a catalog of Wallace's specimens is completed, it can be used to help track down the physical specimens in London's Natural History Museum and other museum collections, leading to increased global access to Wallace's specimens through digitization.

"The specimens can be digitized and the images and data made freely available on the Internet," says Beccaloni. "Colleagues in Southeast Asia view this as 'digital repatriation' of the material Wallace collected in their countries."

In addition to his work related to Alfred Russel Wallace (including the Alfred Russel Wallace Correspondence Project, Wallace Letters Online and The Wallace Website), Beccaloni is also a specialist in the taxonomy and ecology of butterflies and orthopteroid insects (especially cockroaches). He is the founder and author of the Cockroach Species File, a world catalog of cockroaches. Again, BHL provides access to key resources.

"For my work on the Cockroach Species File, I often need copies of old and often obscure taxonomic papers, which fortunately I am usually able to find in the BHL," says Beccaloni.

Homepage of the Cockroach Species File.

Beccaloni's favorite BHL feature is the ability to generate custom PDFs of relevant pages, eliminating the need to download an entire journal volume. To further improve the efficiency of his research, Beccaloni notes that the ability to search the full text of BHL's collections for specific search terms (e.g. "Wallace") would be of considerable value.

Full text search is a feature that BHL's users have long-requested, and we are happy to confirm that its development is currently underway! Through increased research efficiency, full text search will enhance BHL's ability to inspire discovery through free access to biodiversity knowledge. Stay tuned for more information on this new service.

Alfred Russel Wallace was truly a pioneer who left behind a considerable scientific legacy. Thanks to the work of Dr. Beccaloni and others on the Wallace projects, this legacy is being documented and made more accessible to a worldwide audience. We are proud to know that BHL's collections are playing an important part in this valuable work.

Explore the Alfred Russel Wallace projects below:

By Grace Costantino 
Outreach and Communication Manager  
Biodiversity Heritage Library 


This post may contain the personal opinions of BHL users or affiliated staff and does not necessarily represent the official Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) position on these matters.

Thursday, November 2, 2017

"Access to the original record...wherever we now work": Highlights from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology field notes collection

The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California Berkeley is a collaborative partner in the Biodiversity Heritage Library Field Notes Project. The MVZ has committed to digitizing 1,500 of its historic field notes as part of this collaborative undertaking.

The MVZ’s storied field notebook collection was a concept developed at the founding of the museum by Joseph Grinnell, the MVZ’s founding director. From its earliest moments, Grinnell and the museum’s benefactress Annie Alexander discussed methods and curatorial best practices for the specimen collections and research. These ideas and principles around the organization of data recorded around collecting events evolved into Grinnell’s methodology for recording field notes. Early letters between Alexander and Grinnell in the later months of 1907 document their thoughtfulness, excitement, and collegial concern for establishing a research museum which would document the land fauna in the Western United States. Grinnell recognized that field notes would be the lasting primary source material that would document the biodiversity of the rapidly changing environment of the west in the early 20th century and in the future. In 1910 Grinnell famously wrote:
"At this point I wish to emphasize what I believe will ultimately prove to be the greatest value of our museum. This value will not, however, be realized until the lapse of many years, possibly a century, assuming that our material is safely preserved. And this is that the student of the future will have access to the original record of faunal conditions in California and the west, wherever we now work." [1]
The MVZ’s digitized field note book collection is a testament to Grinnell’s enduring legacy. From Grinnell himself, to the life works of Wilbur Mayhew, it is impossible to cover all of the amazing personalities represented but the following selections highlight some of my favorite individuals and collecting efforts from the first 300 books digitized.

Arctic Research Laboratory
Frank A. Pitelka was a UC Berkeley Professor and MVZ Curator of Birds whose prolific career included collaborative research projects at the Arctic Research Laboratory from 1955-1973. Along with his students, Prof. Pitelka’s Barrow, Alaska field notes record distributional data, life histories and behavioral observations of shorebirds, brown lemmings, and other groups across the Alaskan North Slope Borough.

Thomas Custer, Barrow Alaska, circa 1970.
The MVZ Archives has received much interest around field notes from this area and are excited to be able to provide access to this important record of the biodiversity of the Barrow region. Resurvey efforts in Alaska will be greatly supported by the field notes of Richard T. Holmes and the other Pitelka students who participated in the Arctic Research Laboratory.

Richard T. Holmes, Alaska species accounts, part 1, v4220, 1959-1964.

Archivists read many obituaries over their careers and every once in awhile, someone’s life shines like a light emanating from the pages of their memoriams, correspondence and photos. Chester Barlow is one of those individuals. Barlow, a good friend and Stanford colleague of Joseph Grinnell, tragically died at the age of 28. Henry Reed Taylor’s published memoriam to Barlow begins with, “Words cannot tell, and the pen falters as a thing which is feeble-and futile in an effort to express all that is comprehended in the simple words, “Barlow is gone.” [2]

And when Walter E. Bryant died in 1905, Walter K. Fisher began his memoriam to Bryant by stating, “Not since the lamented Chester Barlow passed away, nearly three years ago, has the Society suffered so severe a loss as from the recent death of our esteemed honorary member, Walter E. Bryant. [3]

"Chester Barlow in woods."

Barlow’s field notes and photographs are preserved in the MVZ Archives. His photos and field notes reveal a playful and eager bird enthusiast whose memory lived on in all who knew him. You can read Barlow’s entertaining Farallon Islands notebook on the Internet Archive.

Barlow, Chester. Ornithological Notebook of C. Barlow with Original Observations Only. (1892-1894).

Amelia S. Allen
The MVZ Archives featured Amelia S. Allen in its blog four years ago. Allen was one of the earliest women elected to the membership of the Cooper Ornithological Club. She served as Secretary of the Cooper Club’s Northern Division from 1916 to 1924. She then served as the group’s Vice President in 1925 and then elected President in 1926. Her field notes document the avifauna of the Berkeley region from 1901-1944 and include memoirs of life in Berkeley and membership in the Cooper Ornithological Club.

An example of Allen’s candid reflections from her 1930-1942 Memoir and Field notes volume.

Edward W. Gifford

Edward W. Gifford was the assistant curator of Ornithology at the California Academy of Sciences and later became a curator at the University of California's Museum of Anthropology. He kept an aviary at his Oakland home and donated his notes and birds to the MVZ throughout his life. But something very interesting caught my eye while prepping his volume for scanning. In his notes, he has a section recording his specimens that were burned in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. Gifford was participating in the California Academy of Sciences’ Galapagos Expedition when the earthquake and fire destroyed much of San Francisco, including the California Academy of Sciences. The Galapagos specimens collected by Gifford and fellow expedition members would go on to establish the new specimen collections of the newly rebuilt California Academy of Sciences.

Gifford, Edward W. Bird Notes: Aviary birds of the San Francisco Bay Region, v4289. (1904-1911).

Paul Elias

Paul Elias’s Guatemala field catalog and journal is a small and unassuming volume but it recounts an amazing journey filled with discoveries and critical data. Elias made this trip alone in the summer of 1974. He was 18 years old and an undergraduate at UC Berkeley, working at the MVZ. He collected two new genera of salamanders, later named Nyctanolis pernix and Bradytriton silus during this trip. Findings from this trip and the research of Prof. David B. Wake were published in a seminal paper in 1983. [4] It is difficult to imagine a trip like this taking place today. This is really only the beginning of Elias’s work with salamanders. Robin Moore wrote an excellent piece recounting Paul Elias and Jeremy Jackson’s return to the Guatemala’s Cuchumatane mountain range.

Written by:
Christina Velazquez Fidler, Archivist
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley

The BHL Field Notes Project is funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR).

[1] Grinnell, Joseph (1910). "The Methods and Uses of a Research Museum," Popular Science Monthly, 77, 163–169.

[2] Taylor, Henry Reed (1903). "In Memoriam: Chester Barlow (With Portrait)," The Condor, 5(1), 3-7.

[3] Fisher, W. (1905). "In Memoriam: Walter E. Bryant. Born 14th January, 1861. Died 21st May, 1905," The Condor, 7(5), 129-131.

[4] Elias, P., & Wake, D. B. (1983). Nyctanolis pernix, a new genus and species of plethodontid salamander from northwestern Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. In Advances in herpetology and evolutionary biology. Essays in honor of Ernest E. Williams.