Thursday, March 22, 2018

Exploring the Birds of Canada

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis). Illustration by F.C. Hennessey. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Did someone say Spring?!

In Ottawa, we start to see the Canada Geese returning to their summer nesting grounds around this time of year. Large flocks of them fly overhead in the same v-shaped formations we saw months ago when they left in the late fall.

Various subspecies of the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis). Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Aren’t migratory birds fascinating? Along with so many other Canadian bird species.

Birds of Canada by Percy Algernon Taverner remains one of the best accounts of the kinds of birds that occur in Canada. And the first thirty-six pages holds just the right amount of information to open the science of ornithology to bird lovers, yet still enough information to satisfy research needs.

The pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator). Illustration by Allan Brooks. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Further on, the book is beautifully illustrated with the works of Allan Brooks, a distinguished bird artist, and there is an abundance of illustrations imbedded throughout, contributing visual explanations. A well-illustrated book was still a rarer occurrence in 1934 when this title was published. This was undoubtedly a key factor in its popularity at the time.

The upland plover or sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). Illustration by Allan Brooks. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Percy Algernon Taverner compiled over 330 publications about birds, but Birds of Canada was amongst his three best-sellers. Thanks to the Canadian Museum of Nature Library, you can read a copy of Birds of Canada on BHL.

The rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). Illustration by Allan Brooks. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Taverner built from scratch the Ornithology department of the National Museum of Canada (now Canadian Museum of Nature). Fast forward from then to now (1911 to 2018), a public Bird Gallery at the Canadian Museum of Nature's Victoria Memorial Museum Building in downtown Ottawa is the largest and most modern bird gallery in Canada with nearly 500 specimens of Canadian birds.

Percy Algernon Taverner.

In 2015, Percy Taverner Park was named in his honour. This park is at Woodbine Place, in Ottawa Ontario, where three imaginative bike racks border the entrance to the park. They are stylized Northern Cardinals and reputed to be Percy Taverner’s favourite birds.

Bike racks stylized as Northern Cardinals at the entrance to Percy Taverner Park. Image source: Old Ottawa South Community Association.

Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

For a thoughtfully and nicely written biography, A Life with Birds: Percy A. Taverner, Canadian Ornithologist, 1875-1947 by John L. Cranmer-Byng, a special issue of the Canadian Field-Naturalist, 1996, volume 110, number 1, is also available to read on BHL.

The hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus or Leuconotopicus villosus). Taxonomy varies by taxonomic authority. Illustration by Allan Brooks. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

In the words of Taverner himself, “ornithology is one of the problems of nature that may be successfully attacked from so many points of view and in so many ways that there is interesting and valuable work for all to accomplish according to individual taste or opportunity”.

Quote from the introduction of Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.
The eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). Illustration by Allan Brooks. Birds of Canada (1934) by Percy Algernon Taverner. Digitized in BHL by Canadian Museum of Nature Library.

Post by:
Elizabeth Smith
Acquisitions and Cataloguing Officer
Canadian Museum of Nature Library

Elizabeth Smith joined the Canadian Museum of Nature in 2014 as Acquisitions and Cataloguing Officer. She is responsible for the library’s daily operations, including the selection and purchase of materials and resources as well as providing access to resources and reference services. She also plays a lead role in the library’s digitization initiatives. Prior to this Elizabeth served as Document Delivery & Research Services Technician at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Ottawa.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Explore Harvard University’s Arnold Arboretum on BHL

The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University has contributed a century of their publications to BHL as a part of the Expanding Access to Biodiversity Literature project, including: Bulletin of Popular Information (1915-1940) and Arnoldia (1942-2016).

Nancy Rose, an arborist with a background in woody plant research and horticulture extension, served as Arnoldia’s editor from 2008 to February 2018. Before retiring, she shared with us some reflections on the their contributions to BHL (and recommended some good reads for us to dig into).

“The Arnold Arboretum’s first serial publication, started in 1911, was the Bulletin of Popular Information, a newsletter published during the growing season that provided visitors with information on plants with current ornamental interest (e.g., flowers, fruit, fall foliage). It evolved into a magazine with longer articles on a wide range of topics, published regularly throughout the year, and was renamed Arnoldia in 1941. These publications contain a vast wealth of information on topics such as botany, horticulture, forestry, ecology, and landscape history, as well as details about the Arboretum’s history and functions including plant exploration, plant propagation, and collections management. 
“In 2007, digitization of all past Bulletin and Arnoldia issues was completed and the issues were made available free of charge through the Arboretum’s website. Several years ago, with the desire to expand access to a wider audience, we signed an agreement with BHL and these publications are now available on this wonderful publicly accessible platform.  
“The Bulletin and Arnoldia are a great resource for researchers in many fields. Some of the information is timeless, for example, the previous praises of royal azalea (Rhododendron schlippenbachii) that I referenced in a 2011 profile of the species. Other articles clearly show how times have changed – recommendations in 1950s articles for using DDT in the landscape now seem horrifying. An interesting narrative on how a plant once promoted in Arboretum publications turned out to be incredibly invasive is told in the article 'Untangling the Twisted Tale of Oriental Bittersweet'. (It’s worth noting that scientific names sometimes change over the decades, so plant names in older issues may need to be cross checked with currently accepted nomenclature.)  
The introduced invasive plant oriental bittersweet on the cover of Arnoldia, 2014 (v. 71 no. 3). Digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.
Arnoldia is an eclectic publication and we don’t have a rigid format, but for me an ideal Arnoldia article is informative, engaging, and firmly science based yet accessible to a broad audience. Just a few of our interesting stories: what happened to tree species when their megafaunal seed dispersers (think mastadons) went extinct? ('Anachronistic Fruits and the Ghosts who haunt them'); everything you ever wanted to know about bark ('Bark: From Abstract Art to Aspirin'); and how the great man-made environmental changes in the nineteenth century can be seen in art from that era ('Seeing the Landscape in Landscape Art').” 
A landscape painting from "Seeing the Landscape in Landscape Art" (Arnoldia 2015, v. 73 no. 2). The caption reads: ‘Deforestation is evident in George Inness’s The Lackawanna Valley, circa 1856.’ Digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Illustratrions make the physics of tree growth accessible to a wider audience in the 2001 article ‘The Shape of Trees: A Matter of Compromise’ (Arnoldia v. 61 no. 1). Digitized by Harvard University Botany Libraries.

About the Arnold Arboretum 

The Arnold Arboretum is both a living botanical research collection of Harvard University and a public park for the City of Boston. In its design, the Arboretum’s first director, Charles Sprague Sargent, partnered with landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead (who is known for designing New York City’s Central Park and Boston’s Emerald Necklace, a seven-mile network of parks and parkways that includes the Arnold Arboretum).

Although land for the project was granted by James Arnold, a New Bedford whaling merchant, and by agriculturalist Benjamin Bussey, the high cost of building infrastructure for the park was a barrier. Sargent found a creative way to solve that problem: in December of 1883, after four years of negotiations, Harvard sold the land to the City of Boston and then signed a 1000-year lease on the property. As a result of this arrangement, the city maintains the park’s infrastructure and surveillance, while the University maintains the tree collection and keeps the park open to the general public for free, sunrise to sunset. (The blog of the Arnold Arboretum Horticultural Library has a great post, Maps tell a story, tracking the development of the Arboretum through maps from their archives.)

The Arnold Arboretum’s first director, Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), had studied as an apprentice under Harvard botanist Asa Gray, who is known as the “father of modern botany” for his work in taxonomic botany and his defense of Darwinism. (A fun side note: you can read Darwin’s copy of Gray’s Manual of the botany of the northern United States on BHL.) In 1872, Sargent was appointed Director of Harvard Botanic Garden, which included working as administrator and professor at the Bussey Institution (an undergraduate school of agriculture and horticulture). The following year he became the director of the Arnold Arboretum, which he would lead for 54 years. 

(A number of Sargent’s published works are available on BHL, including: The Silva of North America, 14 volumes published from 1890-1902, contributed to BHL by Missouri Botanical Garden; The Manual of the Trees of North America, first edition, 1905 and second edition, 1922, contributed to BHL by University of California Libraries /; and Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry, published weekly 1888-1897, contributed to BHL by Smithsonian Libraries.)

An established 60-year old cherry tree is carefully moved by forklift to a new location in the Arboretum, to join the Eleanor Cabot Bradley Collection of Rosaceous Plants. (Arnoldia 2001, v. 61 no. 1.). Digitized by Harvard University Botany Libraries.

Extensive planting of the Arboretum’s trees and shrubs began in 1886. The living collection is organized by family and genus (according to Bentham and Hooker classification system for seed plants) over 281 acres of land. As of June 2015, it includes 14,760 accessioned plants representing 3,800 botanical and horticultural taxa, particularly focused on woody species of North America and eastern Asia. These trees are not only enjoyed by the public, but are also used for research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to horticultural practice and invasive species management.

The Arboretum’s collection also includes preserved specimens (1.3 million, which fall under the collection of 5 million held at the Harvard University Herbaria) and library holdings (over 40,000 volumes, located in both Jamaica Plain and at the Harvard University Herbaria in Cambridge).

Many thanks to the Arnold Arboretum for contributing these resources with BHL, and to Nancy Rose for sharing insights!

By Elizabeth Meyer 
Library Project Assistant 
Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University


Thursday, March 8, 2018

From BHL User to BHL Ambassador: Becca Greenstein Helps Spread the Word about BHL

Becca Greenstein, STEM Librarian at Northwestern University Libraries.

A BHL User Story by Becca Greenstein

During the summer of 2016, I had the privilege of working on a collection development project for the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) for a Professional Development Internship with Jacqueline Chapman at Smithsonian Libraries. My task was to refine a collection assessment methodology for BHL using both taxonomic and bibliographic analyses. BHL’s unique features made certain aspects of my project significantly easier to conduct: taxonomic name recognition which pulls scientific names from each page of text, data exports which contain all of the scientific names in the BHL corpus, and searching by scientific name to see if BHL has the initial mentions of various species [1].

Fast forward to November 2017, when I had been working at the Northwestern University Libraries as a STEM Librarian for four months. I attended a Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) webinar about BHL, presented by Grace Costantino and Bianca Crowley, in order to reacquaint myself with BHL (and have the excuse to search their Flickr collection for a good image so I could tweet about the webinar later). Afterwards, I was telling my colleagues about the webinar, and a number expressed interest in learning more about BHL. In addition to being a valuable resource for library staff, we thought a one-shot library class on BHL would be a good opportunity for outreach to various academic departments. To promote the class, I designed a poster, wrote a post on our Libraries' blog, and made plenty of announcements to get the word out to interested library staff and departments.

Poster promoting Becca Greenstein's BHL class at Northwestern University Libraries. Poster by Becca Greenstein and Clare Roccaforte (Director of Marketing and Communication, Northwestern University Libraries).

During the class, I used the content from the FDLP webinar to talk about BHL’s history, collections, users, social media presence, citizen science projects, and grant-funded projects. I also did a demonstration of the BHL website, conducted a number of searches, and highlighted the features that had helped me during my internship. Participation numbers were lower than I’d hoped, but attendees did ask a lot of good questions. They were relieved to know that one can export BHL item records into EndNote, Zotero, and Mendeley, the three reference management tools we support at the Libraries. They asked how it was used by researchers, and I described the natural history and botany research conducted by subject specialists worldwide on organisms ranging from mosses to turtles to fungi. I also mentioned Vargapupa biheli, the snail species named in honor of BHL, which they were very interested to hear about. They also loved the cards that feature illustrations from the BHL collection, the BHL link, and social media information (images can be found here).

Looking forward, I’ll be presenting a webinar on BHL for the Illinois chapter of the Special Libraries Association in May. Our Life Sciences Librarian told me that researchers in Northwestern’s Plant Biology and Conservation program would also be interested in learning about BHL. Lastly, I’ll hopefully do a presentation about BHL at our orientation for new graduate students next fall. I’d like to continue to spread the word about this collection that has revolutionized natural history and botany research.

[1] More information on my internship can be found in my post on the BHL blog.


Becca Greenstein is the STEM Librarian at Northwestern University Libraries. She conducted a collection development project for BHL during the summer of 2016 and is very glad to have found a way to share the BHL collection with researchers and librarians in Illinois. She is interested in open access, creating inclusive library environments, research metrics, and information access for everyone: library users and non-users alike.

Friday, March 2, 2018

Planned BHL Downtime: 0900 GMT on 3/5/18

BHL will be unavailable due to network maintenance starting 0900 GMT on Monday March 5, 2018. This downtime may last up to a few hours. During this time you may access our collection via the Internet Archive.

Thank you for your patience.

Thursday, March 1, 2018

POBPS, how they did it : when science meets military interest

In the middle of the Cold War, the Smithsonian Institution embarked on the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program (POBSP) to survey U.S. territory islands and atolls dotting the central Pacific Ocean. From 1963 to 1969, researchers sought to inventory the plants and animals present on the islands, observe seasonal variations in numbers and reproduction, and the distribution of pelagic birds. Over the course of the survey, researchers observed approximately 150,000 pelagic birds at sea, banded 1,800,000 birds, and surveyed the flora and fauna of the islands, the most comprehensive study at the time. An incredible amount of data was collected during the POBSP, drastically increasing information available about the ecology of the small islands. Although it resulted in an incredible amount of data, the survey only spanned three years in part due to questions about the funder's intentions.

Puffinus newelli (Newell's shearwater), 1965.

The Smithsonian received grant funds from the Department of Defense for the POBSP. In exchange, the DOD requested basic information about the movements of birds and several thousand blood samples. While the request was unorthodox, it was seen as justified since migratory birds were damaging aircrafts and communications equipment in the Pacific. Smithsonian agreed to the request and embarked on the first stretch of the POBSP in 1963.

Once the survey began, it became clear Smithsonian wasn't completely aware of what it had signed up for. The military would complete exercises without explanation and kept the Smithsonian staff on a "need to know" basis. There is evidence that some of the researchers tried to get more information on why the military was so interested in the data but didn't succeed. In the end, the staff accepted requests for secrecy, seeing it as a fair trade for the work they had the opportunity to complete, a task inaccessible to other groups.

Venus was bright on this particular September night in 1965.
Tordoff, Jeffrey P. 1965.

We now know that the military conducted germ warfare tests in the Pacific in the 1960s, including The Pacific Project which exposed military personnel and biologists to chemical cleansers and bacteria which have been linked to debilitating conditions. There's no official connection between the POBSP samples and these tests, and researchers from the Survey have not reported similar health effects as military personnel who were part of the Pacific Project. But the Department of Defense's interest in the blood samples and migration patterns sparked suspicion which ultimately ended funding for the Survey in 1969.

Considering the political climate at the time, the Smithsonian was perhaps naïve in not considering the implications of the exchange in funds and information with the Department of Defense. The Institution's researchers were offered the opportunity to complete research in remote areas that were expensive to study and required military cooperation to even get to. The younger biologists were particularly thrilled at the chance to be out in the field for weeks at a time like the biologists before them. What they all saw was a godsend.

List of blood samples collected in 1966.
Laysan Island, October 1966, Blood.

The history of the POBSP and its connection to American military interests of the 1960s is incomplete, and parts of it will likely remain unknown. Despite this dark side to the survey, it is undeniable that Smithsonian's researchers were able to collect an impressive amount of information during their expeditions to the Pacific. As part of the BHL Field Notes Project, the Smithsonian Institution Archives has taken on the task of digitizing field notes from the POBSP. Considering the shear amount of data collected, it should be no surprise that there are over 1000 field notebooks in the collection, making this SIA's largest undertaking for the Field Notes Project.

Mus autopsy data, 1966.

To date, nearly 300 field notes from the collection are readily available in BHL, and many more are in the final post-processing stages in preparation for BHL. Stay tuned for the complete set of notes in the upcoming months.

Written by:
Adriana Marroquin, Project Manager 
BHL Field Notes Project and Smithsonian Field Book Project

The BHL Field Notes Project is funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR). 

Finding Aid for "Record Unit 245, National Museum of Natural History, Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, Records, circa 1961-1973, with data from 1923"

MacLeod, R. (2001). "Strictly for the Birds": Science, the Military and the Smithsonian's Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, 1963-1970. Journal of the History of Biology, 34(2), 315-352.

Rauzon, M J. (2006). "Live Ammo: Testing of Biochemical Agents on U.S. Sailors." The Asia -Pacific Journal : Japan Focus, 4 (12). 

Further Reading
Hunter, E. (2011). "Life in the Field: a Reflection on Cataloging Field Notes in the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program." Smithsonian Field Book Project Blog.

Lamb, J. (2016).  “TheStrange Tale of the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program.” JSTOR Daily.

Parilla, L. (2013). "I Found It in a Field Book: Hawaiian Monk Seal Family Images." Smithsonian Field Book Project Blog.

Tennis, A. (2016). "Invasive Pests of the Pacific." Smithsonian Field Book Project Blog.